Monosaccharides can be classified according to the number of carbon atoms they contain: diose (2), triose (3), tetrorose (4), pentose (5), hexose (6), heptosis (7) and so on. They can also be classified according to whether or not they contain an aldehyde (aldose) or a ketone (ketosis). We can also combine these two names to refer to classes of carbohydrates. For example, aldohexose is a carbohydrate (indicated by the -ose ending) with six carbons (hex) and an aldehyde group (aldo). A ketotoentosis is a carbohydrate with one ketone and 5 carbons. Glucose and fructose are both hexoses because they contain six carbons, but glucose is an aldohexose, while fructose (also known as “fructose”) is a ketohexose. Other common monosaccharides include galactose (part of lactose), xylose (“wood sugar”), ribose (in RNA) and deoxyribose (in DNA). Milk is one of the staple foods necessary for proper nutrition, especially for growing children. It contains vitamins and minerals necessary for healthy development. Unfortunately, milk and other dairy products also contain lactose, a carbohydrate that can make some people very sick. Lactose intolerance is a condition in which lactose in milk in the small intestine cannot be digested well. The undigested lactose then moves into the colon, where bacteria attack it and form large amounts of gas.

Symptoms of lactose intolerance include bloating, cramping, nausea and vomiting. Avoiding foods that contain lactose is recommended for people who show signs of lactose intolerance. Because dairy products can provide many vital nutrients, tablets can be taken that provide the necessary digestive materials in the small intestine. Lactose-free milk is also readily available. Carbohydrates can be represented by the stoichiometric formula (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbons in the molecule. Therefore, the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is 1: 2: 1 in carbohydrate molecules. The origin of the term “carbohydrates” is based on its components: carbon (“carbo”) and water (“hydrate”). Carbohydrates are divided into three subtypes: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.

Carbohydrates bound to red blood cells also determine blood type (see figure below). Of the four blood types, type O has the fewest types of saccharides, while type AB has the most. As a result, type O blood is considered a universal donor because there are no saccharides that appear foreign when transfusion into the blood of another type. It is not the other way around. For example, if a patient with type O blood receives type A blood, it will be rejected by the body because an unknown species is introduced into the body. Type A blood cells contain N-acetyl-galactosamine, which is not present in type O blood. A person with type O blood would be rejected during the type A blood test. The rhesus factor (Rh) in the blood also affects the properties of the donor and acceptor, but does not depend on carbohydrates. Rh factor is determined by the presence (Rh+) or absence (Rh-) of a particular protein on the surface of red blood cells. Monosaccharides are the simplest unit of carbohydrates.

They are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms and cannot be further degraded because they are already in their simplest form. Their general formula is (CH2O)n, where n is a number equal to or greater than 3. An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer that contains a small number (usually two to ten) of monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides can have many functions; For example, they are often found on the plasma membrane of animal cells, where they may play a role in cell-to-cell recognition. In general, they are bound to side chains of compatible amino acids in proteins or lipids. When the weather warms up, the runners go out. Not only casual joggers, but also the more serious ones who like to run every 26.2 miles of a marathon. Before these races (and a lot of shorter races), you hear a lot about carbo-loading. This practice involves eating a lot of strength in the days leading up to the race.

Starch is converted into glucose, which is usually used for biochemical energy. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle tissue to be used when needed. When a lot of glycogen is available, the muscles have more biochemical energy to fall back on when needed in the long run. The rest of us will just sit in the street restaurant, eat our spaghetti and enjoy watching others work hard. Like Fischer projections, Haworth structures provide information about the three-dimensional structure of a molecule without explicitly showing it in the drawing. Carbohydrates are present in the body in the form of chains and rings, the latter being more common. Haworth projections provide an easy way to represent the structures of the rings, and may or may not show the hydrogen atoms bound to each carbon. Keep in mind that each carbon has four bonds, so hydrogen is implicit if the structure does not show all four bonds. When cyclic monosaccharide is formed, two versions can form, called (alpha) (alpha) and (beta) (beta) (see figure below).

The arrow in the figure shows the anomeric carbon on which the ring is formed and where the orientation of the group (ce{-OH}) can change. The orientation of the other groups (ce{-OH}) is determined because they are determined by the orientation of the groups (ce{-OH}) in the respective monosaccharide (to be compared with the orientation of the groups (ce{-OH}) on the left and right sides of the Fischer projections). Each monosaccharide can be in the form (alpha) or (beta), and the two forms convert to each other as the ring opens and closes. The form (alpha) occurs when the group (ce{-OH}) on the anomeric carbon points downwards and the version (beta) exists when the group (ce{-OH}) on the anomaric carbon points upwards. The general formula of a monosaccharide is (left( ce{CH_2O}_n right)), where (n) can be any number greater than two. For example, if (n) is set to 6, the formula (ce{C_6H_{12}O_6}) can be written. This is the formula of glucose monosaccharide. Another monosaccharide, fructose, has the same chemical formula as glucose, but atoms are arranged differently.

Carbohydrates have many isomers due to the arrangement of groups (ce{-OH}) in their structures. Compare the glucose and fructose molecules in the following figure. Can you tell their differences? The only differences are the positions of certain atoms. These differences affect the properties of both monosaccharides. Cellulose is the most abundant natural biopolymer. The cell wall of plants is largely made up of cellulose and provides structural support to the cell. Cellulose consists of glucose monomers connected by β glycosidic bonds 1 to 4. .

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