In episode 201, we covered the most controversial of all contractions, “ain`t”. Our advice was that you`re probably referring to the fact that a lot of characters don`t use contractions in their language. The film`s dialogues are quite faithful to the language used by author Charles Portis in the novel, but people during the borderline period often used contractions, especially in informal language. And that`s it: a quick look at historical contractions for pleasure and profit (but especially for pleasure 😉). Another contraction in Portuguese, similar to English, is the combination of the pronoun with words that begin with a, resulting in the change of the first letter a to an apostrophe and the joining of the two words. Examples: Estrela d`alva (A popular expression for Venus, which means “star alb” as an indication of its brightness); Caixa d`água (water tank). Thus, since Victorian times in England and America, writers have had a fairly full range of contractions to choose from, and in every historical period of time, people of all social classes have used contractions. Neal Whitman PhD is a freelance writer and consultant specializing in language and grammar and a member of the Reynoldsburg, Ohio School Board. You can search for him by name on Facebook or find him on Twitter as a @literalminded and on his blog under literalminded.wordpress.com. Still, Alex`s question is a good excuse to talk about how to reuse contractions.

Here`s a brief look at what we`ve said about contractions in other episodes. The end of the Middle English era came around the 16th century and gave way to early modern English. The works of Shakespeare and others set the standard, and the language we know today as English was born. And yes, you guessed it, the tongue was also full of contractions at the time. Contractions can be found everywhere in Shakespeare`s plays. They were an integral part of language and were easily accepted in both entertainment and more scientific works. In fact, early modern English contains many more contractions than today, such as shan`t, `twere, `twon`t, `tis, ha`n`t and many others. It wasn`t until the early 18th century that someone questioned the use of contractions. Unfortunately for bad words, by the end of the century they were considered abominations in formal writing. Although even scholars used them in everyday conversations, for some reason they considered them unacceptable in scientific writings. This attitude has continued to this day, as most people despise contractions. Although they are commonly used in conversation, fiction, and informal writing, using them in formal writing is similar to picking up pencils and doodles on your paper.

And so the sad little contractions that we all love so much are always pursued by the educated elite for no real reason, forcing them to be used only by the “uneducated” population. The contractions will rise to the heights they once held, but when that time comes, I can least predict. In Filipino, most contractions require other words to be contracted correctly. Only words that end in vowels can contract with words like “at” and “ay.” In this diagram, the “@” represents any vowel. In short, use contractions in formal writing when it seems stranger to avoid them than to use them. (If this advice sounds familiar, you may remember our episode on vulgar language, in which we gave similar advice.) Of course, you don`t run the risk of offending your readers with contractions like you would with swearing, but still, if you use contractions just because you`re allowed to, you risk looking awkward and distracting your readers instead of making your writing easier to read – which was the whole point of using contractions in the first place! I read letters written around 1650 (and anyone writing during this period will be middle-class or upper-class and well-educated), and they use many contractions: I am, I, we, you, `tis, `twas, `twill, on`t (of this one), t`autre (the other), in`t (inside) and with`t (with). Also does not occur. Me (“I”) and you (“you” unofficially) necessarily contract according to an imperative verb and before the word y or en. It is also imperative to avoid the repetition of a sound if (“if”) it (“he”, “he”) or they (“she”) is followed, which begin with the same vowel i: *if it → if it (“if it is”, if it); *if they → if they (“if they”). In extreme cases, long entire sentences can be written as a single word. An example of this is “Det ordner seg av seg selv” in the standard Bokmål font, meaning that “He will sort himself” could become “dånesæsæsjæl” (note the letters Å and Æ and the word “sjæl” as the ocular dialectal spelling of selv).

R-dropping, which is present in the example, is particularly common in the language [which one?] in many parts of Norway, but takes place in different ways, as does the elision of endphonems words such as /ə/. Since popular Chinese dialects use functional word sets that are significantly different from classical Chinese, almost all of the classical contractions listed below are now archaic and have disappeared from everyday use. However, modern contractions have evolved from these new popular functional words. Modern contractions occur in all major modern dialect groups. For example, 别 (bié) “not” in Standard Mandarin is a contraction of 不要 (bùyào), while 覅 (fiào) “not” in Shanghainese is a contraction of 勿要 (wù yào), as this is graphically obvious. Similarly, in Northeast Mandarin 甭 (beng), “needn`t” is both a phonological and graphic contraction of 不用 (bùyòng). Finally, Cantonese 乜嘢 (mat1 ye5)[4] contracts “what?” to 咩 (me1). The history of contractions Use contractions in formal written form when it seems stranger to avoid them than to use them. In fact, there were even contractions before the 1600s, but at that time they were usually not given with an apostrophe, as the apostrophe was still a new invention.

There are two types of contractions in English and both types are formed only with the verbs BE, DO, HAVE or a modal verb. These contractions are very common both orally and in writing. I have a PhD in English, and from time to time, when someone learns this, they immediately say, “Well, is `ain`t` a word?” I love telling them that “aint`” is not just a word, but that Jane Austen used it in her novels! . Well, she used “an`t” as a contraction for “I`m not.” The same, thank you 😛 for the information on the dates of use of these contractions! Very useful for writing historical fiction. 🙂 Most “no” contractions come a little late in English. My old friend, the online etymology dictionary, gives this data about when some of them came into use (it would be if they are found in printed form – they may have been used verbally a few years earlier): spelling contractions are just ways to reproduce the way words are pronounced. This is not really different from using 甭 instead of 不用 or 若 in place or 如果. These cases were not thought through or planned, they were just ways to reproduce the frequently spoken forms of words. Sorry, but here in the United States, as in most other English-speaking countries, we use a lot of contractions in our speech. This means that as an actor, you have to use the same models if you really want to look like a native speaker. Contractions are in the occasional language, at least in English, Spanish and Japanese, as far as I know. The Japanese have my favorite contrasts/elisions.

The main contractions are listed in the following table (for more explanations, see Auxiliaries and contractions in English). Contractions make your writing friendly and accessible. They give the impression that you are actually “talking” to your reader. When writing dialogues in a novel or play, contractions help reflect how a character actually speaks. I am curious to know all the examples here, if in some cases, when contractions along the lines of class distinction were used. Is it if the lower or less educated classes used more contractions than the upper or educated classes? Did the writers intentionally portray the characters differently using contractions? What do you think? A contraction is a word or phrase that has been shortened by omitting one or more letters. In writing, an apostrophe is used to indicate the location of the missing letters. .